Lincoln Corsair Manuals

Lincoln Corsair: Engine System - General Information / Diagnosis and Testing - Engine

Symptom Charts

Symptom Chart - Gasoline Engine Performance

Diagnostics in this manual assume a certain skill level and knowledge of Ford-specific diagnostic practices.
REFER to: Diagnostic Methods (100-00 General Information, Description and Operation).

Condition Actions
Excessive engine oil consumption   GO to Pinpoint Test A
Loss of coolant   GO to Pinpoint Test B
Coolant in engine oil   GO to Pinpoint Test B
The engine emits excessive blue smoke   GO to Pinpoint Test C
The engine emits excessive white smoke   GO to Pinpoint Test C
The engine emits excessive black smoke   GO to Pinpoint Test C
The engine emits excessive gray smoke   GO to Pinpoint Test C
Loss of power, poor idling or runs rough   GO to Pinpoint Test D
Low or high engine oil pressure   GO to Pinpoint Test E

Symptom Chart - NVH

Diagnostics in this manual assume a certain skill level and knowledge of Ford-specific diagnostic practices.
REFER to: Diagnostic Methods (100-00 General Information, Description and Operation).

Condition Actions
Upper engine noise   GO to Pinpoint Test F
Lower engine noise   GO to Pinpoint Test F
Front of engine noise   GO to Pinpoint Test F
Rear of engine noise   GO to Pinpoint Test F

Pinpoint Tests


PINPOINT TEST A: EXCESSIVE ENGINE OIL CONSUMPTION

Possible Sources

  • Gasket
  • Seal
  • Blocked or restricted turbocharger oil drain pipe
  • Damaged or collapsed air intake hoses and tubes
  • Turbocharger oil seals
  • Inoperative PCV system
  • Incorrect engine oil
  • Worn valve stem seal
  • Worn valve stem or valve guide
  • Sticking piston ring
  • Worn piston ring groove
  • Damaged oil control ring
  • Worn piston or cylinder
A1 CHECK FOR ACCEPTABLE ENGINE OIL CONSUMPTION
  • Carry out the engine oil consumption test
    REFER to: Oil Consumption Test (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Is engine oil consumption in the acceptable range?
Yes The vehicle is operating correctly.
No GO to A2

A2 CHECK FOR PCM (POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE) DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCS)
  • Ignition ON.
  • Carry out the PCM KOEO and KOER self-tests.

Are any Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) present?
Yes REFER to the Master DTC Chart to diagnose the DTC present.
No GO to A3

A3 CHECK FOR EXTERNAL ENGINE OIL LEAK
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Inspect the engine for signs of engine oil leaks.
    REFER to: Oil Leak Inspection (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Are any engine oil leaks visible?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to A4

A4 CHECK THE VEHICLE SERVICE HISTORY
  • Check the vehicle service history and make sure the correct engine oil used is documented.

Is the correct engine oil used based on the vehicle service history?
Yes GO to A5
No CHANGE the engine oil and filter using the correct engine oil specification. Refer to the Specifications procedure in the 303-01 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

A5 CHECK THE AIR INTAKE SYSTEM
  • Inspect the air intake system and make sure all of the hoses and tubes are securely connected and free of damage.

Is the air intake system free of damage and all of the connections correctly secure?
Yes GO to A6
No REPAIR as necessary.

A6 CHECK THE PCV (POSITIVE CRANKCASE VENTILATION) SYSTEM
  • Inspect the PCV system and make sure all of the hoses and tubes are securely connected, free of damage and the PCV valve operates correctly.

Is the PCV system free of damage, all of the connections correctly secure and the PCV valve operating correctly?
Yes GO to A7
No REPAIR as necessary.

A7 CHECK FOR ENGINE OIL IN THE COOLING SYSTEM
  • Check for engine oil in the cooling system.

Is engine oil detected in the cooling system?
Yes If equipped with an engine oil cooler,GO to A8
If not equipped with an engine oil cooler, GO to A11
No If equipped with a turbocharger, GO to A9
If not equipped with a turbocharger, GO to A11

A8 CHECK THE ENGINE OIL COOLER
  • Inspect the engine oil cooler and seals for damage.

Are the engine oil cooler and seals free of damage?
Yes GO to A9
No REPAIR as necessary.

A9 CHECK THE TURBOCHARGER(S)
  • Inspect the turbocharger(s) for indication of an oil seal leaking in to the air intake or exhaust system. REFER to the Diagnosis and Testing procedure in the 303-04 Turbocharger section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Are the turbocharger(s) leaking oil into the intake or exhaust?
Yes REPAIR as necessary. REFER to the Removal and Installation procedure in the 303-04 turbocharger section for the engine being diagnosed.Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.
No GO to A10

A10 CHECK THE SPARK PLUGS
  • Inspect the spark plugs for signs of oil fouling.
    REFER to: Spark Plug Inspection (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Using a bore scope, inspect the pistons for oil deposits.

Do the spark plugs or pistons have oil deposits or show signs that the engine is burning oil?
Yes GO to A11
No The source of the concern is not the engine. Check for other possible sources for oil consumption. Re-check for acceptable oil consmumption. Check the PCV system and turbochargers.

A11 CHECK THE CYLINDER HEAD GASKET, CYLINDER HEAD AND ENGINE BLOCK DECK SURFACES
  • Remove the cylinder head(s). Inspect the cylinder head gasket, cylinder head and cylinder block for damage.
    REFER to: Cylinder Block Distortion (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    and REFER to: Cylinder Head Distortion (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Is the cylinder block and cylinder head(s) free of damage?
Yes GO to A12
No REPAIR as necessary.

A12 CHECK THE VALVE STEM SEALS
  • Remove the cylinder head(s). Remove the valves from the cylinder heads and inspect the valve stem seals for damage, excessive wear and proper sealing.

Are the valve stem seals damaged?
Yes Install new valve stem seals. REFER to the Disassembly and Assembly of Subassemblies - Cylinder Head procedure for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.
No GO to A13

A13 CHECK THE VALVE TRAIN
  • Inspect the valves for excessive oil or carbon build up. Inspect the valves, valve stems and valve guides for damage.
    REFER to: Valve Guide Inner Diameter (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    REFER to: Valve Stem Diameter (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Are the valves damaged or do they show excessive wear?
Yes INSTALL new valve seals, valves or a new cylinder head.
No GO to A14

A14 CHECK THE ENGINE
  • Disassemble the engine. Check the pistons and piston rings for excessive carbon build up. Check the pistons, piston rings and cylinder bores for excessive wear or damage.
    REFER to: Piston Inspection (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    REFER to: Piston Ring End Gap (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    REFER to: Cylinder Bore Taper (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Is damage, excessive wear or excessive carbon build up found on the pistons or piston rings?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No INSTALL a new short block.

PINPOINT TEST B: LOSS OF COOLANT

Possible Sources

  • Seal
  • Coolant hose
  • Engine oil cooler
  • Coolant pump
  • Radiator
  • Heater core
  • Engine front cover
  • EGR cooler
  • Head gasket
  • Cylinder head
  • Cylinder block

Visual Inspection and Pre-checks

  • Check for engine coolant leaks around sealed areas, such as the coolant pump, intake manifold and cylinder heads.
  • Check the coolant hoses and tubes for damage.
  • Check the coolant hose and tube connections and make sure they are securely connected.

NOTE: A sweet odor accompanying white smoke is not considered normal and is indicative of coolant in the exhaust.

B1 CHECK FOR OBVIOUS SIGNS OF CONCERN
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Inspect the engine and cooling system for signs of coolant leaking externally. REFER to the Diagnosis and Testing procedure in the 303-03 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Are any external coolant leaks detected?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to B2

B2 CHECK FOR EXCESSIVE SMOKE FROM THE EXHAUST
  • Start the engine.
  • NOTE: Coolant intrusion in to the cylinders will cause white smoke from the exhaust. Allow the engine to reach normal operating temperature. Inspect the exhaust for excessive white smoke.

Does the exhaust emit excessive white smoke?
Yes GO to B6
No GO to B3

B3 CHECK FOR COOLANT IN THE ENGINE OIL
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Remove and inspect the engine oil level indicator for signs of coolant in the oil.

Is coolant present in the engine oil?
Yes If equipped with an engine oil cooler, GO to B4
If not equipped with an engine oil cooler, GO to B5
No GO to B6

B4 CHECK THE ENGINE OIL COOLER
  • Inspect the engine oil cooler and seals for damage.

Are the engine oil cooler and seals free of damage?
Yes GO to B5
No REPAIR as necessary.

B5 CHECK THE ENGINE FRONT COVER
  • Remove the engine front cover. Refer to the 303-01 engine front cover procedure for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.Check the front cover seals for damage and signs of coolant passing in to the engine oil.

Are the engine front cover seals or sealing surfaces damaged causing coolant to leak in to the engine oil?
Yes Install new engine front cover seals or a new engine front cover. Refer to the 303-01 engine front cover procedure for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.
No GO to B6

B6 CHECK FOR COOLANT INTRUSION
  • Remove the spark plugs. Refer the 303-07 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure. Inspect the spark plugs for signs of coolant intrusion.
    REFER to: Spark Plug Inspection (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Using a bore scope, inspect the cylinders and pistons for signs of coolant intrusion.

Do the spark plugs or cylinders show signs of coolant intrusion?
Yes GO to B7
No GO to B8

B7 CHECK THE EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) COOLING SYSTEM
  • NOTE: On engines equipped with an EGR cooling system, the hot exhaust gases are cooled by a cooler that uses coolant. It is possible for coolant to be lost to EGR system if the cooler is damaged. Inspect the EGR system for damage resulting in coolant intrusion. If necessary, REMOVE any EGR components for access to inspect the components for signs of coolant intrusion. Refer to the 303-08 section for the engine being diagnosed.

Is coolant leaking into the EGR system?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to B8

B8 CHECK COMPRESSION AND CYLINDER LEAKAGE
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Perform a compression test and cylinder leakage test. Check the test results for signs of a damaged head gasket or cylinder head sealing surfaces. Check the coolant for bubbles caused by air entering the cooling system from compression.
    REFER to: Compression and Cylinder Leakage Test (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Does the compression test or cylinder leakage test indicate a loss of compression or cylinder leakage in to the cooling system?
Yes GO to B9
No The conditions that are causing the loss of coolant are not present. Attempt to duplicate the conditions that cause the loss of coolant. Allow the engine to cool to ambient temperature or install the spark plugs and allow the engine to reach operating temperature. Recheck the compression and cylinder leakage. Check for other possible sources for coolant loss. REFER to the Diagnosis and Testing procedure in the 303-03 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

B9 CHECK THE ENGINE
  • Remove the cylinder heads. Refer to the 303-01 cylinder head procedure(s) for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure. Inspect the head gasket(s) for signs of damage or failure. Inspect the cylinder block and cylinder head(s) for damage.
    REFER to: Cylinder Block Distortion (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    and REFER to: Cylinder Head Distortion (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Are the cylinder head gasket(s), cylinder head(s) or cylinder block damaged?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No Install a new long block.

PINPOINT TEST C: ENGINE EMITS SMOKE

Possible Sources

  • Condensation build up in exhaust
  • Air cleaner element
  • Fuel injection system
  • Coolant intrusion to combustion chamber
  • Excessive engine oil consumption

NOTE: Black soot near the exhaust tailpipe area is a normal condition created from rich air/fuel mixture under low load conditions.

NOTE: The higher the ambient temperature, the less likely water vapor is seen exiting the tailpipe during engine startup and engine warm-up. The colder the ambient temperature, the more likely water vapor is seen exiting the exhaust tailpipe during engine startup and engine warm-up. This is a normal operating condition.

NOTE: A sweet odor accompanying white smoke is not considered normal and is indicative of coolant in the exhaust.

C1 CHECK FOR A NORMAL OPERATING CONDITION

NOTE: Make sure the engine is at ambient shop temperature prior to starting this test.

NOTE: If a sweet odor accompanies white smoke, proceed to step C2.

  • Start the engine while observing the exhaust exiting the tailpipe and allow the engine to reach normal operating temperature.

Is water vapor (white smoke) present and does the visible water vapor dissipate over time as the engine warms up to operating temperature?
Yes If blue or black smoke is not present, the vehicle is operating normally.
If blue or black smoke is present, GO to C2
No GO to C2

C2 CHECK FOR PCM (POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE) DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCS)
  • Ignition ON.
  • Carry out the PCM KOEO and KOER self-tests.

Are any Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) present?
Yes REFER to the Master DTC Chart to diagnose the DTC present.
No For a white smoke concern, GO to Pinpoint Test B
For a black smoke concern, GO to C3
For a blue or gray smoke concern, GO to Pinpoint Test A

C3 CHECK THE AIR CLEANER ELEMENT
  • Check the air cleaner element.

Is the air cleaner element relatively clean and free of debris?
Yes GO to C4
No INSTALL a new air cleaner element.

C4 CHECK THE FUEL SYSTEM
  • Check the fuel system for normal operation. REFER to the Diagnosis and Testing procedures in 303-04 Fuel Charging and Controls for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Is the fuel system operating correctly?
Yes The concern is not currently present or the fuel system is not the cause of the concern. Verify the customer concern and the characteristics of the concern.
No REPAIR as necessary.

PINPOINT TEST D: LOSS OF POWER, POOR IDLING, RUNS ROUGH

Possible Sources

  • Accessory drive concern
  • Air intake system concern
  • Brake system concern
  • Cooling system concern
  • Exhaust system concern
  • Fuel system concern
  • Ignition system concern
  • Throttle body concern
  • Lubrication system concern
  • Turbocharger concern
  • Turbocharger bypass valve concern
  • Transmission system concern
  • Clutch system concern
  • Intake or exhaust valve concern
  • Valve spring concern
  • Valve tappet
  • Camshaft
  • Cylinder head gasket
  • Cylinder head
  • Piston or piston ring concern

Visual Inspection and Pre-checks

  • Verify the accessory drive operates correctly.
  • Verify the brake system operates correctly.
  • Verify the fuel system is free of leaks.
  • Verify the throttle body is free of damage.
  • Verify the engine oil level is OK.
  • Verify the transmission operates correctly.
  • Verify the clutch system (if equipped) operates correctly.

NOTE: This pinpoint test presumes all of the visual inspections and pre-checks have been completed.

D1 CHECK FOR PCM (POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE) DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCS)
  • Ignition ON.
  • Carry out the PCM KOEO and KOER self-tests.

Are any Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) present?
Yes REFER to the Master DTC Chart to diagnose the DTC present.
No GO to D2

D2 CHECK FOR PREVIOUS SIMULTANEOUS BRAKE PEDAL AND ACCELERATOR PEDAL OPERATION
  • Check the following Parameter Identifications (PIDs) for simultaneous brake pedal and accelerator pedal operation:
    • Access the  PCM  and monitor the  BRKOVR_ACTION  PID

    • Access the  PCM  and monitor the  BRKOVRD_POSS  PID

    • Access the  PCM  and monitor the  DIST_BRKOVRD (km)  PID


Is there an indication of both pedals being applied simultaneously?
Yes ADVISE the vehicle owner simultaneous brake pedal and accelerator pedal operation activates the brake over accelerator feature.
No GO to D3

D3 CHECK THE AIR CLEANER
  • Inspect the air cleaner.

Is the air cleaner clogged?
Yes REPLACE the air cleaner. Check the system for normal operation.
No GO to D4

D4 CHECK THE AIR INTAKE SYSTEM
  • Check the air intake system, air cleaner and CAC components, ducts, pipes and hoses. Check that all components are installed correctly and tight. Check that all components are aligned correctly. Check for damage that could cause an air-intake leak resulting in loss of boost. For additional information, refer to the 303-12 Intake Air Distribution and Filtering section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Does the air intake system have any leaks?
Yes Repair as necessary. Refer to the 303-12 Intake Air Distribution and Filtering section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.
No GO to D5

D5 CHECK FOR VACUUM LEAKS

NOTE: It may be necessary to use a smoke machine to locate any vacuum leaks.

  • Check for vacuum leaks.
  • If necessary, perform the intake manifold vacuum test.
    REFER to: Intake Manifold Vacuum Test (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Use the intake manifold vacuum test procedure to help identify possible sources of the condition.

Are there any vacuum leaks found?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to D6

D6 CHECK FOR INTAKE MANIFOLD LEAKS

NOTE: It may be necessary to use a smoke machine to locate any vacuum leaks.

  • Check for intake manifold vacuum leaks or damage.

Does the intake manifold indicate leaks or damage?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to D7

D7 CHECK THE EXHAUST SYSTEM
  • Check the exhaust system for restrictions or damage. Refer to the 309-00 Exhaust System section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 309 for the procedure.

Is the exhaust system restricted or damaged?
Yes Repair as necessary. Refer to the 309-00 Exhaust System section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 309 for the procedure.
No GO to D8

D8 CHECK FOR OVERHEATING CONCERN
  • Inspect the engine and cooling system for overheating concerns. Refer to the Diagnosis and Testing procedure in the 303-03 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Is the engine overheating?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to D9

D9 CHECK THE IGNITION SYSTEM
  • Inspect the ignition system. Refer to the Diagnosis and Testing procedure in the 303-07 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Is any concern found with the ignition system?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to D10

D10 CHECK COMPRESSION AND CYLINDER LEAKAGE
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Remove the spark plugs. Refer the 303-07 section for the engine being diagnosed.Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure. Inspect the spark plugs for signs of inefficient combustion.
    REFER to: Spark Plug Inspection (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Use the spark plug inspection procedure to help identify possible sources of the condition.
  • Perform a compression test and cylinder leakage test. Check the test results for signs of a damaged head gasket cylinder head sealing surfaces or loss of compression or blow by. Check the coolant for bubbles caused by air entering the cooling system from compression.
    REFER to: Compression and Cylinder Leakage Test (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Does the compression test or cylinder leakage test indicate a loss of compression or excessive cylinder leakage?
Yes GO to D15
No GO to D11

D11 INSPECT THE FUEL SYSTEM
  • Inspect the fuel system. Refer to the Diagnosis and Testing procedure in the 303-04 Fuel or 310-00 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 310 for the procedure.

Is the fuel system OK?
Yes GO to D12
No REPAIR as necessary.

D12 CHECK FUEL PRESSURE
  • Check the fuel pressure. Refer to the fuel system pressure check procedure in the 310-00 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 310 for the procedure. Compare the fuel pressure to the specification listed in the 310-00 specification procedure.
  • Draw a sample of the fuel. Check the fuel for contamination.

Is the fuel pressure within specifications and free of contamination?
Yes GO to D13
No REPAIR as necessary or DRAIN the fuel and fill the fuel tank with good fuel.

D13 CHECK THE ENGINE OIL PRESSURE
  • Check the engine oil pressure.
    REFER to: Oil Pressure Test (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Compare the engine oil pressure gauge to the engine oil pressure specifications in the 303-01 specifications procedure of the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Is the engine oil pressure within specification?
Yes GO to D14
No For a engine oil pressure concern,GO to Pinpoint Test E

D14 CHECK THE TURBOCHARGER(S)
  • Inspect the turbocharger(s) for damage that could cause loss of boost. REFER to the Diagnosis and Testing procedure in the 303-04 Turbocharge section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Are the turbocharger(s) damaged?
Yes INSTALL a new turbocharger. REFER to the Removal and Installation procedure in the 303-04 turbocharger section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.
No GO to D15

D15 CHECK THE TIMING DRIVE COMPONENTS
  • Remove the engine front cover. Inspect the timing components for excessive wear or damage that could cause timing concerns. Check for a stretched timing chain or belt. Check for excessive wear on the timing guides. Check the tensioner plungers for over extension. Inspect the VCT unit(s) for damage or excessive wear.

Is damage found to the timing drive components?
Yes INSTALL new timing drive components.
No GO to D16

D16 CHECK THE VALVE TRAIN FOR DAMAGE
  • Remove the valve cover(s). Visually inspect the camshafts and valve train for obvious signs of excessive wear or damage. Check for broken valve springs, damaged valve retainers, missing or damaged valve keepers or bent valves.

Is damage found to the valve train?
Yes INSTALL new components.
No GO to D17

D17 PERFORM VALVE TRAIN ANALYSIS
  • Perform the valve train analysis.
    REFER to: Valve Train Analysis (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    . Compare the camshaft lift to the specifications in the 303-01 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Is the camshaft lift and valve clearance within specifications?
Yes GO to D18
No ADJUST the valve clearance. If necessary, INSTALL new camshafts, camshaft roller followers or valve tappets.

D18 CHECK THE CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
  • Remove the cylinder heads. Refer to the 303-01 cylinder head procedure(s) for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure. Inspect the head gasket(s) for signs of damage or failure. Inspect the cylinder block and cylinder head(s) for damage.
    REFER to: Cylinder Block Distortion (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    and REFER to: Cylinder Head Distortion (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Are the cylinder head gasket(s), cylinder head(s) or cylinder block head damaged?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to D19

D19 CHECK THE VALVE STEM SEALS
  • Remove the cylinder head(s). Remove the valves from the cylinder heads and inspect the valve stem seals for damage, excessive wear and proper sealing.

Are the valve stem seals damaged?
Yes Install new valve stem seals. REFER to the Disassembly and Assembly of Subassemblies - Cylinder Head procedure for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.
No GO to D20

D20 CHECK THE VALVE TRAIN
  • Inspect the valves for excessive engine oil or carbon build up. Inspect the valve seat contact surface and valve seats for damage or wear. Inspect for a burnt or pitted sealing contact surface. Inspect for an even sealing contact surface around the valve and the valve seat. Inspect the valves, valve stems and valve guides for damage.
    REFER to: Valve Guide Inner Diameter (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    REFER to: Valve Stem Diameter (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Are the valves damaged or do they show excessive wear or an uneven sealing contact pattern?
Yes INSTALL new valve seals, valves or a new cylinder head.
No GO to D21

D21 CHECK THE ENGINE
  • Disassemble the engine. Check the pistons and piston rings for signs of excessive blow by. Check for excessive carbon build up. Check the pistons, piston rings and cylinder bores for excessive wear or damage.
    REFER to: Piston Inspection (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    REFER to: Piston Ring End Gap (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    REFER to: Cylinder Bore Taper (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Is damage, excessive wear or excessive carbon build up found on the pistons or piston rings?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No INSTALL a new short block.

PINPOINT TEST E: LOW OR HIGH ENGINE OIL PRESSURE

Possible Sources

  • Engine oil
  • Engine oil filter housing
  • Engine oil filter
  • Engine oil pump
  • Engine oil pressure control solenoid
  • VCT unit(s)
  • Engine oil pick-up tube plugged
  • Excessive connecting rod bearing clearance
  • Excessive crankshaft main bearing clearance

Visual Inspection and Pre-checks

  • Verify the engine oil level is within specification.
E1 CHECK THE PCM DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTC)

NOTE: This step is only necessary for symptom based diagnostics. For DTC based diagnostics, proceed to the next step.

  • Ignition ON.
  • Carry out the PCM KOEO and KOER self-tests.

Are any Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) present?
Yes Refer to the Master DTC Chart to diagnose the DTC present.
No GO to E2

E2 CHECK THE VEHICLE SERVICE HISTORY
  • Check the vehicle service history and make sure the correct oil used is documented.

Is the correct oil used based on the vehicle service history?
Yes GO to E3
No CHANGE the engine oil and filter using the correct oil specification. Refer to the Specifications in the 303-01 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

E3 CHECK THE ENGINE OIL FILTER HOUSING AND SEAL
  • For the 2.7L and 3.0L Ecoboost engine, remove the oil filter housing. Inspect:
    • the oil filter housing for a plugged center stem.
    • the oil filter housing for a missing or damaged center stem.
    • for missing or damaged O-ring seal on the stem.
  • For all other engines, remove the oil filter. Inspect:
    • the oil filter for being damaged.
    • the oil filter header for a damaged center stem.
    • for missing or damaged O-ring seal.

Are any concerns discovered?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No INSTALL an new oil filter. GO to E4

E4 CARRY OUT THE ENGINE OIL PRESSURE TEST
  • Install the engine oil filter housing or engine oil filter.
  • Check the engine oil pressure.
    REFER to: Oil Pressure Test (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Compare the engine oil pressure gauge to the engine oil pressure specifications in the 303-01 specifications procedure of the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Is the engine oil pressure within specification?
Yes The system is operating normally at this time.
REFER to: Instrumentation, Message Center and Warning Chimes (413-01 Instrumentation, Message Center and Warning Chimes, Diagnosis and Testing).
to diagnose an instrument panel concern.
No For a low engine oil pressure concern, GO to E5
For a high engine oil pressure concern, IDENTIFY the cause of the engine oil pressure restriction after the engine oil pressure sensor. REPAIR as necessary.

E5 CHECK THE ENGINE OIL PICKUP TUBE
  • Remove the engine oil pan. Refer to the Removal and Installation procedure in the 303-01 section. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure. INSPECT for a blocked engine oil pick up tube.
  • Inspect for a blocked engine oil pick up tube.

Is the engine oil pickup tube free from obstructions and blockage?
Yes GO to E6
No REPAIR as necessary.

E6 CHECK FOR OBVIOUS SIGNS OF EXCESSIVE WEAR
  • Visually inspect the engine oil pan for signs of a mechanical damage or excessive wear, such as metal flakes settled at the bottom of the engine oil pan, pieces of metal or other debris from the timing components.

Is any sign of excessive wear or mechanical damage present?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No INSTALL a new oil pump. REFER to the oil pump procedure in the 303-01 section for the engine being diagnosed. CHECK the system for normal operation. If the condition is still present, GO to E7

E7 CHECK THE CONNECTING ROD BEARINGS
  • Remove the engine oil pan. Remove the connecting rod caps and check the bearings for signs of excessive wear or damage. Check the connecting rod bearing journal clearance.
    REFER to: Connecting Rod Bearing Journal Clearance (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Compare the connecting rod bearing journal clearance to the connecting rod bearing journal clearance specification in the specifications procedure for the 303-01 section of the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Are the connecting rod bearing journal clearances within specifications?
Yes GO to E8
No If debris from the failed bearings or crankshaft appear to have entered the engine oil, GO to E8. INSTALL new connecting rod bearings.

E8 CHECK THE CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARINGS
  • Remove the crankshaft main bearing caps and check the bearings for signs of excessive wear or damage. Check the crankshaft main bearing clearance.
    REFER to: Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Clearance (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Compare the crankshaft main bearing journal clearance to the crankshaft main bearing journal clearance specification in the specifications procedure for the 303-01 section of the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Are the crankshaft main bearing journal clearances within specifications?
Yes The lower end rotating assembly (connecting rods or crankshaft) are not the source of low engine oil pressure. REFER to the 303-14 section for the engine being diagnosed for all engine oil pressure related DTC .Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.
No INSTALL a new long block.

PINPOINT TEST F: ENGINE NOISE

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

Since it is possible that any one of multiple systems may be the cause of the symptom, it may be necessary to use a process of elimination type of diagnostic approach to pinpoint the responsible system. NVH symptoms should be identified using the diagnostic tools and techniques that are available. For a list of these techniques, tools, an explanation of their uses and a glossary of common terms, REFER to: Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) (100-04 Noise, Vibration and Harshness, Diagnosis and Testing).

In some cases, a noise may be a normal characteristic of that engine type. In other cases the noise may require further investigation. Comparing the noise to a similar year/model vehicle equipped with the same engine aids in determining if the noise is normal or abnormal.

Once a concern is identified as an abnormal engine noise, it is critical to determine the location of the specific noise. Use the EngineEAR/ChassisEAR or stethoscope (the noise is always louder closer to the noise source) to isolate the location of the noise to one of the following areas.

  • Fuel injector(s)
  • Upper end of engine
  • Lower end of engine
  • Front of engine
  • Rear of engine

Fuel injector noise

A common source of an engine ticking noise can be related to the fuel injection pump (Ecoboost engine) or fuel injector(s). This is normal engine noise that can be verified by listening to another like vehicle. If the injector noise is excessive or irregular, use the EngineEAR/ChassisEAR or stethoscope to isolate the noise to a specific fuel injector.

Upper End Engine Noise

A common source of upper end engine noise (ticking, knocking or rattle) includes the camshaft(s) and valve train. Upper end engine noise can be determined using the EngineEAR/ChassisEAR or stethoscope on the valve cover bolts. If the noise is loudest from the valve cover bolts, the noise is within the upper end. The EngineEAR/ChassisEAR or stethoscope can be used to further isolate the noise to the specific cylinder bank and cylinder. Removal of the valve covers is required to pinpoint the source of the noise.

Lower End Engine Noise

A common source of lower end engine noise (ticking or knocking) includes the crankshaft, connecting rod(s) and bearings. Lower end noises can be determined by using the engine oil pan or lower cylinder block. If the noise is loudest from these areas, the noise is within the lower end. If an engine noise is isolated to the lower end, some disassembly of the engine may be required to inspect for damage or wear.

Front of Engine Noise

A common source of noise from the front of the engine (squeal, chirp, whine or hoot) is the FEAD components. To isolate FEAD noise, carry out the Engine Accessory Test, REFER to: Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) (100-04 Noise, Vibration and Harshness, Diagnosis and Testing).

Some other noises from the front of the engine (ticking, tapping or rattle) may be internal to the engine. Use the EngineEAR/ChassisEAR or stethoscope on the engine front cover to determine if the noise is internal to the engine. Removal of the engine front cover may be necessary to inspect internal engine components.

Rear of Engine Noise

A common source of noise from the rear of the engine (knocking) is the flywheel/flexplate. Inspection of the flywheel/flexplate is necessary.

Some engines have timing drive components at the rear of the engine and may be the source of noise (ticking, knocking or rattle). Use the EngineEAR/ChassisEAR or stethoscope on the rear of the engine if the noise is suspected to be internal to the engine. Some disassembly of the engine may be required to inspect for damage or wear.

Turbocharger Noise (Ecoboost Engine)

A common source of noise is the turbocharger. Some whine or air rush noise is an acceptable condition.

To help locate the source of engine noise, REFER to: Engine Noise Identification and Location (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Possible Sources

  • Expanding/contracting materials
  • Thin or diluted engine oil
  • Low engine oil level
  • Vacuum leak
  • Cooling system concern
  • Powertrain mount(s)
  • Drivetrain
  • Accessory drive system concern
  • Air intake system concern
  • Turbocharger bypass valve
  • Turbocharger
  • Engine or transmission interference to chassis or body
  • Starter motor
  • Fuel injector
  • Fuel pump
  • Fuel injection pump (direct injection engines only)
  • Flywheel/flexplate
  • Timing drive system concern
  • Valve train component concern
  • Cylinder head
  • Balance shaft assembly
  • Engine oil pump
  • Lower end rotating assembly (connecting rods or crankshaft) concern
  • Pistons/cylinder walls

NOTE: A metal pinging/clicking sound occurring while the engine is cooling down after reaching normal operating temperature is considered normal.

F1 COMPARE TO A LIKE VEHICLE
  • Compare the noise concern to a like vehicle, similarly equipped.

Is the noise of concern present in the like vehicle?
Yes The vehicle is operating as designed.
No GO to F2

F2 CHECK FOR OBVIOUS SIGNS OF MECHANICAL DAMAGE
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Visually inspect the powertrain components and all possible causes listed for obvious signs of mechanical damage.

Is any mechanical damage present?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to F3

F3 CHECK THE ENGINE OIL LEVEL
  • Check the engine oil level.

Is the engine oil level OK?
Yes GO to F4
No FILL the engine oil to specification.

F4 CHECK THE ENGINE OIL FOR CONTAMINATION
  • Check the engine oil for contamination.

Is the engine oil free of contamination?
Yes GO to F5
No IDENTIFY the source of the contamination and REPAIR as necessary.

F5 CHECK THE VEHICLE SERVICE HISTORY
  • Check the vehicle service history and make sure the correct engine oil used is documented.

Is the correct engine oil used based on the vehicle service history?
Yes GO to F6
No CHANGE the engine oil and filter using the correct engine oil specification. Refer to the Specifications procedure in the 303-01 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

F6 CHECK FOR PCM (POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE) DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCS)
  • Ignition ON.
  • Carry out the PCM KOEO and KOER self-tests.

Are any Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) present?
Yes REFER to the Master DTC Chart to diagnose the DTC present.
No GO to F7

F7 CHECK FOR AN ENGINE OVERHEATING CONCERN
  • Check the engine for an overheating condition.

Is an engine overheat condition present?
Yes REFER to the Diagnosis and Testing procedure in the 303-03 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.
No GO to F8

F8 CHECK THE COOLANT PUMP END PLAY
  • Check the coolant pump for excessive end play. Inspect the coolant pump for imbalance with the drive belt off.

Is any concern with the coolant pump present?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to F9

F9 CHECK FOR A VACUUM LEAK

NOTE: A smoke machine may be used to identify the location of a vacuum leak.

  • Inspect the vacuum hoses for leaks and check the engine for a vacuum leak.

Is a vacuum leak present?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to F10

F10 CHECK THE AIR INTAKE SYSTEM

NOTE: The turbocharger bypass valve closes approximately 30 seconds after cold start up creating a pop noise. This is a normal operating condition.

NOTE: A hissing noise on vehicles with a plastic intake manifold may occur during idle or high idle that is apparent with the hood open. This is a normal operating condition.

  • Inspect the air intake system.
  • Check the air intake ducts, air cleaner and throttle body for leaks and correct fit.
  • If equipped, check the turbocharger/supercharger and CAC and tubes for leaks, correct alignment and damage.

Is any concern discovered with the air intake system?
Yes REPAIR or adjust as necessary.
No GO to F11

F11 CHECK THE IGNITION SYSTEM
  • Inspect the ignition system. Inspect the spark plugs for normal burning.
    REFER to: Spark Plug Inspection (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Is any concern found with the ignition system?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to F12

F12 CHECK THE ACCESSORY DRIVE SYSTEM

NOTE: The Engine Cold Soak and Engine Accessory Test procedures can be used to help identify a concern with the accessory drive. If a concern exists, place the EngineEAR probe directly on the idler/tensioner center post or bolt to verify which bearing is making the noise.

  • Inspect the accessory drive system.
  • If necessary, carry out the Engine Accessory Test.
    REFER to: Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) (100-04 Noise, Vibration and Harshness, Diagnosis and Testing).

Is any concern discovered with the accessory drive system?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to F13

F13 CHECK THE FUEL SYSTEM

NOTE: The fuel pump module turns on before the engine starts to prime the fuel system. A whine or hum may be heard when unlocking the vehicle or opening the door with the engine off. This is a normal operating condition.

  • Inspect the fuel injection system. REFER to the Diagnosis and Testing procedures in the 303-04 and 310-01 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Is any concern discovered with the fuel injection system?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to F14

F14 CHECK THE STARTER MOTOR
  • Inspect the starter motor for damage and correct installation. REFER to the Diagnosis and Testing procedure in the 303-06 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Is any concern discovered with the starter motor?
Yes REPAIR as necessary.
No GO to F15

F15 CHECK THE POWERTRAIN MOUNTS
  • Inspect the powertrain mounts for damage.

Is any concern discovered with the powertrain mounts?
Yes PERFORM the Powertrain/Drivetrain Mount Neutralizing procedure.
REFER to: Powertrain/Drivetrain Mount Neutralizing (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
. If the concern still exists, REPAIR or INSTALL new powertrain mounts as necessary.
No GO to F16

F16 CHECK THE EXHAUST SYSTEM
  • Inspect the exhaust system for damage. REFER to the Diagnosis and Testing procedure in the 309-00 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Is exhaust system the cause of the noise?
Yes REPAIR or INSTALL new components as necessary.
No GO to F17

F17 CHECK FOR TURBOCHARGER NOISE
  • Check the turbocharger(s) for excessive noise. Compare the noise to another vehicle similarly equipped. REFER to the 303-04 turbocharger Diagnosis and Testing procedure for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Are the turbocharger(s) the cause of the noise?
Yes INSTALL new turbocharger(s).
No GO to F18

F18 CHECK ENGINE OIL PRESSURE
  • Check the engine oil pressure.
    REFER to: Oil Pressure Test (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Compare the engine oil pressure gauge to the engine oil pressure specifications in the 303-01 specifications procedure of the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Is the engine oil pressure within specification?
Yes GO to F19
No GO to Pinpoint Test E

F19 IDENTIFY THE LOCATION OF THE ENGINE NOISE
  • Using EngineEAR/ChassisEAR, stethoscope and accelerometers along with the VCMM , locate the engine noise.
    REFER to: Engine Noise Identification and Location (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).

Is the noise coming from the engine?
Yes If the noise is coming from the rear of the engine GO to F20 If the noise is coming from the front of the engine, GO to F21 If the noise is coming from the upper end of the engine, GO to F22 If the noise is coming from the lower end of the engine, GO to F25
No The condition is not present at this time.

F20 CHECK THE FLEXPLATE OR FLYWHEEL AND CLUTCH
  • If equipped, remove the torque converter nut/bolt access plug. If equipped, remove the inspection cover. If needed, remove the starter motor. Check if the torque converter nuts or bolts are loose. Visually inspect the flexplate or flywheel and clutch for damage. Using an assistant, rotate the crankshaft pulley by hand while inspecting the flexplate or flywheel and clutch and listening for unusual noises coming from between the engine and transmission. Check to be sure the flexplate or flywheel do not feel loose on the crankshaft. Restrict the movement of the flexplate or flywheel while an assistant turns the crankshaft by hand if needed to help identify a possible source of the noise.

Is damage found to the flexplate, flywheel or clutch, are the torque converter, flexplate or flywheel fasteners loose or does the noise seem to be coming from between the engine and transmission?
Yes REMOVE the transmission. INSPECT the flexplate or flywheel and clutch for damage. INSTALL a new flexplate or flywheel and clutch as needed.
No GO to F25

F21 CHECK THE TIMING DRIVE COMPONENTS
  • Remove the engine front cover. Inspect the timing components for excessive wear or damage. Inspect the engine front cover for contact marks from the timing chain or belt. Inspect the VCT unit(s) for damage or excessive wear.

Is damage found to the timing drive components?
Yes INSTALL new timing drive components.
No GO to F22

F22 CHECK THE VALVE TRAIN FOR DAMAGE
  • Remove the valve cover(s). Visually inspect the camshafts and valve train for obvious signs of excessive wear or damage. Check for broken valve springs, damaged valve retainers, missing or damaged valve keepers or bent valves.

Is damage found to the valve train?
Yes INSTALL new components.
No GO to F23

F23 PERFORM VALVE TRAIN ANALYSIS
  • Perform the valve train analysis.
    REFER to: Valve Train Analysis (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    . Compare the camshaft lift to the specifications in the 303-01 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Is the camshaft lift and valve clearance within specifications?
Yes GO to F24
No ADJUST the valve clearance. If necessary, INSTALL new camshafts, camshaft roller followers or valve tappets.

F24 CHECK THE CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES
  • Remove the cylinder head(s). Remove the valves from the cylinder heads and inspect the valves and valve guides for excessive wear or damage.
    REFER to: Valve Stem Diameter (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    REFER to: Valve Guide Inner Diameter (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Compare the measurement to the valve stem-to-guide clearance specification in 303-01 specifications for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Are the valve clearances within specifications?
Yes GO to F29
No INSTALL new cylinder head(s) and valves.

F25 CHECK THE BALANCE SHAFTS FOR DAMAGE OR EXCESSIVE WEAR
  • If equipped, remove the balance shaft assembly. Inspect the balance shaft assembly for excessive wear or damage. Check the bearing surfaces for excessive wear or damage.

Is damage or excessive wear found on the balance shaft assembly or the bearings?
Yes If debris from the balance shaft or bearings appear to have entered the engine oil, GO to F26INSTALL a new balance shaft assembly.
No GO to F26

F26 CHECK THE ENGINE OIL PUMP
  • Remove the engine oil pump. Check the engine oil pump for damage or excessive wear. Check for cracks on the housing. Check for scoring or excessive clearance on the gearotor or internal moving parts.

Is the engine oil pump damaged?
Yes If debris from the balance shaft or bearings appear to have entered the engine oil, GO to F27 INSTALL a new engine oil pump.
No GO to F27

F27 CHECK THE CONNECTING ROD BEARINGS
  • Remove the engine oil pan. Remove the connecting rod caps and check the bearings for signs of excessive wear or damage. Check the connecting rod bearing journal clearance.
    REFER to: Connecting Rod Bearing Journal Clearance (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Compare the connecting rod bearing journal clearance to the connecting rod bearing journal clearance specification in the specifications procedure for the 303-01 section of the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Are the connecting rod bearing journal clearances within specifications?
Yes GO to F28
No If debris from the failed bearings or crankshaft appear to have entered the engine oil, GO to F28. INSTALL new connecting rod bearings.

F28 CHECK THE CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARINGS
  • Remove the crankshaft main bearing caps and check the bearings for signs of excessive wear or damage. Check the crankshaft main bearing clearance.
    REFER to: Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Clearance (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Compare the crankshaft main bearing journal clearance to the crankshaft main bearing journal clearance specification in the specifications procedure for the 303-01 section of the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Are the crankshaft main bearing journal clearances within specifications?
Yes GO to F29
No INSTALL a new long block.

F29 CHECK THE PISTON TO CYLINDER WALL CLEARANCE
  • Remove the engine. Remove the piston and connecting rod assemblies from the engine. Inspect the pistons, piston rings and cylinder walls for signs of piston slap. Inspect the pistons.
    REFER to: Piston Inspection (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Check the piston ring end gap. REFER to: Piston Ring End Gap (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Measure the cylinder bore taper. REFER to: Cylinder Bore Taper (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    . Measure the piston diameter. REFER to: Piston Diameter (303-00 Engine System - General Information, General Procedures).
    Calculate the piston-to-cylinder bore clearance and compare the specification to the specification procedure in the 303-01 section for the engine being diagnosed. Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for the procedure.

Is the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance within specification?
Yes INSTALL new piston rings. Hone the cylinder walls.
No INSTALL a new short block.


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